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What causes elevated Kappa free light chains?

The elevated kappa light chains 'can' be associated with multiple myeloma, BUT it can also be related to a very BENIGN condition called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

What is a high kappa free light chain level?

Free light chains will normally be present in the blood at low levels, with a kappa/lambda ratio of approximately 0.26 to 1.65 for individuals with normal kidney function. Increased kappa free light chains and an increased kappa/lambda ratio may be seen with plasma cell disorders that produce excess monoclonal kappa light chains.

What are free kappa and lambda light chains?

Serum Free Light Chains. Light chains are proteins produced by immune cells called plasma cells. Also called kappa and lambda light chains, they link together with other proteins (heavy chains) to form immunoglobulins (also known as antibodies) that target and neutralize specific threats to the body such as bacteria and viruses.

What are Kappa and lambda chains?

are two different types of light chains called kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). When the light chain is attached to the heavy chain, it is known as a “bound light chain.” For unknown reasons, plasma cells typically make more light chains than heavy chains, so not all the light chains will be used to make antibodies.


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